What does it take to secure a resilient water supply?

by Robert Keessen  |  7th November 2019

Our communities expect the government to deliver reliable and resilient water supplies.

The east coast of Australia is in the grip of a drought, the second in the first two decades of this century. Many areas of western NSW are already running out of water, and urban areas on the eastern seaboard are not far behind. Sydney’s water storage levels have taken less than 3 years to drop to 50% capacity.

Storage volumes in Sydney’s Reservoirs
Source: adapted from Water NSW

Sydney’s Water storage reached a low of 32% capacity during the Millennium drought. Most of the drawdown occurred in the worst 6 years of that drought and it took about 4 years for storages to refill after that.

Following the Millenium drought, the Federal Government Productivity Commission was asked to “…identify ways of improving resource allocation to achieve long term water security”. In 2011 the commission concluded that:

  • Governments have responded to drought with prolonged and severe water restrictions and investments in desalination capacity.
  • The costs of water restrictions and inefficient supply augmentation have been billions of dollars per year nationally.

The Productivity Commission recommended a reform package to provide consumers with greater reliability of supply.

Drought returned to the eastern seaboard in late 2017. This time:

  • The weather has been drier than the Millennium drought, with storages drawing down more rapidly.
  • A desalination plant built in response to the Millennium drought was turned on in January 2019, and reached full capacity in June 2019, to supply 250ML/day, to provide an additional 15% to Sydney’s normal demand.
  • Planning has started for the second stage of the desalination plant which would double the total desalination capacity.
  • Stage 1 water restrictions were re-introduced in July 2019.

We are faced with a similar, but worse situation to what we were in a decade ago.

How bad could it get?

The city of Cape Town had a critical water shortage in 2018 and came within 90 days of running out of water. Residents could only use 50 litres a day, about a quarter of what the average per person in Sydney uses today. This is severe, considering a short shower may take 15 litres, and a toilet flush is between 4 litres and 10 litres on average.

Will Sydney also need severe restrictions to survive the drought?

This is not easy to predict, but if the drought continues at its current severity storage volume is likely to fall below 25% capacity some time in 2022. And if this drought lasts as long as the last one, it won’t break until late 2023. This means that there is a real possibility that severe water restrictions will be needed as early as 2022.

If this happens our communities will be asking how we got into this situation and what needs to be done to prevent it from happening again.

A paradigm shift is needed.

Water systems design from the 1900’s were based around centralised systems, that harvest runoff and transport it to the city to be used once. However, there are a range of other water sources available which are non-rainfall dependent including:

  • Desalination, which is potentially an unlimited supply but is expensive and energy intensive.
  • Recycled wastewater costs less to produce than desalination, but potable re-use does not yet have public acceptance and is more likely to be acceptable in the long term. There is considerable opportunity to supply recycled water through a secondary pipe distribution system to new developments.
  • Stormwater recycling is also possible and would be suitable for developments where there is space to accommodate relatively large storages.
  • Groundwater from aquifers also provide an opportunity where they have the adequate capacity (and have not been contaminated) and could be part of the mix of solutions.

Better results will be achieved with dynamic and adaptive systems, with:

1. Customer engagement that allows them to:

  • Express their willingness to pay for more secure water supply and introduce pricing policy (such as tiered pricing) that enable customers to pay.
  • To tell them how they can lower their water bills by having their own local (place-based or household based) systems.

2. Regulatory form to:

  • Recognise the value on non-rainfall dependant water supply sources, particularly where supplies are scarce. The cost of new water may vary from less than $1.00/kL up to $5.00/kL, which is very significant when water is being sold at around $2.00 to $2.50.
  • Encourage integrated solutions by removing ‘ring-fenced’ pricing for water, wastewater and recycled water products.
  • Encourages private sector participation, including access to cross subsidies available to public sector utilities.

3. Smarter strategy, planning, and design of our systems, by:

  • Diversifying water sources to include non-rainfall dependent sources.
  • Identifying a range of diverse solutions tailored to specific areas that use new technologies.
  • Integration of local systems with existing centralised infrastructure.
  • Adaptive management that has options to increase supply ready and known decision points for when to enact them to avoid restrictions.
  • Integrated water cycle planning to obtain the benefits of recycling water in local communities rather than the exclusive use of a centralised single use system.

These topics will be explored in further detail in subsequent articles…. coming soon.

Robert Keessen is a Project Manager at Warren Smith & Partners, a consultancy that has delivered solutions for the water business since 1981. Robert heads up a practice called Water Smart Solutions, that looks to provide strategic and planning advice that is fully grounded in the practicality of delivery. For more details see:


Wonderful recognition from our industry!

Warren Smith & Partners has been involved in the Barangaroo precinct development for the past 10 years. Our Fire, Hydraulic and Civil Services teams have worked with Lendlease and the Barangaroo Delivery Authority to deliver robust design, risk free documentation and construction services through this period. During this time the Fire services team have worked at implementing several industry leading design solutions that have resulted in changes to statutory requirements and offered significant operational efficiencies to the development facilities managers.

The Fire Services Team is now excited to be shortlisted for the Fire Protection Association Australia 2019 industry awards for projects over $1m and will be attending the gala dinner in Melbourne on the 8th November. If you would like to catch up with our team please get in touch with Peter Brawley, David Bolt or Ian Stone to discuss how we can assist your next project.

Barangaroo South

Dangrove Art Storage Facility, Alexandria NSW

Warren Smith & Partners are delighted to have had been given the opportunity to provide hydraulic, fire and Sydney Water Services Coordination consultancy for the new Dangrove Art Storage Facility.

This 10,000m² state of the art storage facility houses Judith Neilson’s private contemporary Chinese art collection. With an impressive Great Hall of 90m long; Dangrove is able to accommodate events and display large artwork installations comfortably.

We are thrilled to have had the opportunity to work on this masterpiece.

Competent Fire Safety Practitioners

Newly Accredited (FPAS) and Our Contribution to the Fire Protection Industry | by Fires Services | 18 March 2019

This article can also be downloaded as an A4 Flyer here: Fire News 0319

Please be advised that the changes to the Environmental Planning & Assessment Act introduced in October 2017, requires Fire Protection Designers to be accredited either by the Building Professionals Board or the National Engineer’s Register to enable certification of:-

  • Fire Sprinkler Systems
  • Fire Hydrant & Fire Hose Reel Systems
  • Fire Detection & Alarm Systems

For Class 2 to 9 Buildings.

The Legislation requires that design of all active Fire Systems be checked and certified by newly accredited Fire Design Engineers.

Warren Smith & Partners have three (3) highly experienced professional Fire Services Designers who have completed the Fire Protection Accreditation Scheme FPAS.

Ian Stone (31 Years with Practice)
Expertise Leader – Fire
MOBILE: 0407 207 286
FPAS Accreditation No: FSD17478

David Bolt (25 Years with Practice)
Project Manager – Fire
MOBILE: 0425 256 922
FPAS Accreditation No: FSD14563

Peter Brawley (25 Years with Practice)
State Manager Victoria
MOBILE: 0412 922 503
FPAS Accreditation No: FSD20802

In order to qualify for FPAS, Ian Stone, David Bolt & Peter Brawley were required to pass a rigorous induction and examination process to confirm their current expertise in each of the above Fire Protection Design disciplines.

Warren Smith & Partners as a significant contributor to the Fire Service Industry, are pleased to have played a significant role in formulating the following key new Legislation documents:-

Warren Smith & Partners recent contributions to the Fire Protection Industry

BCA 2016 Volume One Amendment 1 – March 2018
This amendment to BCA 2016 introduces the AS 2118.1 – 2017 ‘Fire Sprinkler Standard’ which includes for changes and advancements in Fire Sprinkler Technology, water supply and protection requirements.

Warren Smith & Partners provided technical input to the new AS 2118.1 – 2017 through its voluntary contribution the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC 4/8/9) of the Fire Protection Association Australia.

Sprinkler Protection to Electrical Equipment in Lift Shafts – Amendment to BCA 2019, Clause 13 of E1.5
Warren Smith & Partners instigated the request for change to the BCA through the Fire Protection Association due to wide ranging interpretations of the Clause.

The end result is simplification of the protection criteria which provides a cost-effective wet sprinkler protection to the Lift Shafts containing electrical equipment and enables Lift Shaft maintenance to be completed safely with the ability to isolate the sprinkler water supply in the Lift Shaft to minimise risk of electrocution caused by accidental sprinkler activation.

The proposed changes to Clause E1.5 of BCA 2019 are available in the public Draft and it should be noted that a Fire Engineered Solution will be required to adopt this innovation until BCA 2019 is implemented.

AS 2118.6 Combined Sprinkler / Hydrant Systems in multi-storey buildings
Warren Smith and Partners has successfully lobbied Australian Standards through the Fire Protection Association to update AS 2118.6 to enable alignment with recently published Fire Sprinkler & Fire Hydrant Standards and also ensure more effective fire-fighting facilities for operational challenges of fires in high-rise Towers.


Warren Smith & Partners golf day

The second annual Warren Smith & Partners golf day took place at Pennant Hills Golf Club on Tuesday 24th of October. Glorious weather greeted the teams that participated, with the course in immaculate condition. 39 players partook in the annual event with 30 guests and 9 staff attending. The golf day was an extremely valuable experience and allowed us to spend some down time with clients and consultants that we normally only see in the work environment.

Congratulations to the prize winners and thank you to our guests for joining us, we hope to see you again next year!

Warren Smith Consulting Engineers